Mathematics and Computation

A blog about mathematics for computers

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Posts in the category Talks

One syntax to rule them all

I am at the Syntax and Semantics of Type Theory workshop in Stockholm, a kickoff meeting for WG6 of the EuroProofNet COST network, where I am giving a talk “One syntax to rule them all” based on joint work with Danel Ahman.

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Here are the slides of my talk "The dawn of formalized mathematics" from the 8th European Congress of Mathematics, which is taking place online and in Protorož, Slovenia, from June 20 to 26, 2021:

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It is my pleasure to have the opportunity to speak at the University of Wisconsin Logic seminar. The hosts are graciously keeping the seminar open for everyone. I will speak about a favorite topic of mine:

Synthetic mathematics with an excursion into computability theory

Speaker: Andrej Bauer (University of Ljubljana)
Location: University of Wisconsin Logic seminar
Time: February 8th 2021, 21:30 UTC (3:30pm CST in Wisconsin, 22:30 CET in Ljubljana)
Video link: the Zoom link is available at the seminar page


According to Felix Klein, “synthetic geometry is that which studies figures as such, without recourse to formulae, whereas analytic geometry consistently makes use of such formulae as can be written down after the adoption of an appropriate system of coordinates”. To put it less eloquently, the synthetic method axiomatizes geometry directly by construing points and lines as primitive notions, whereas the analytic method builds a model, the Euclidean plane, from the real numbers.

Do other branches of mathematics posses the synthetic method, too? For instance, what would “synthetic topology” look like? To build spaces out of sets, as topologists usually do, is the analytic way. The synthetic approach must construe spaces as primitive and axiomatize them directly, without any recourse to sets. It cannot introduce continuity as a desirable property of functions, for that would be like identifying straight lines as the non-bending curves.

It is indeed possible to build the synthetic worlds of topology, smooth analysis, measure theory, and computability. In each of them, the basic structure – topological, smooth, measurable, computable – is implicit by virtue of permeating everything, even logic itself. The synthetic worlds demand an economy of thought that the unaccustomed mind finds frustrating at first, but eventually rewards it with new elegance and conceptual clarity. The synthetic method is still fruitfully related to the analytic method by interpretation of the former in models provided by the latter.

We demonstrate the approach by taking a closer look at synthetic computability, whose central axiom states that there are countably many countable subsets of the natural numbers. The axiom is validated and explained by its interpretation in the effective topos, where it corresponds to the familiar fact that the computably enumerable sets may be computably enumerated. Classic theorems of computability may be proved in a straightforward manner, without reference to any notion of computation. We end by showing that in synthetic computability Turing reducibility is expressed in terms of sequential continuity of maps between directed-complete partial orders.

The slides and the video recording of the talk are now available.

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After a short pause, our next talk in the series will be given by Jamie Vicary, who will present a proof assistant in which the proofs are drawn!

Introducing A proof assistant for geometrical higher category theory

Time: Thursday, November 26, 2020 from 15:00 to 16:00 (Central European Time, UTC+1)
Location: online at Zoom ID 989 0478 8985
Speaker: Jamie Vicary (University of Cambridge)
Proof assistant:


Weak higher categories can be difficult to work with algebraically, with the weak structure potentially leading to considerable bureaucracy. Conjecturally, every weak infty-category is equivalent to a "semistrict" one, in which unitors and associators are trivial; such a setting might reduce the burden of constructing large proofs. In this talk, I will present the proof assistant, which allows direct construction of composites in a finitely-generated semistrict (infty,infty)-category. The terms of the proof assistant have a geometrical interpretation as string diagrams, and interaction with the proof assistant is entirely geometrical, by clicking and dragging with the mouse, completely unlike more traditional computer algebra systems. I will give an outline of the underlying theoretical foundations, and demonstrate use of the proof assistant to construct some nontrivial homotopies, rendered in 2d and 3d. I will close with some speculations about the possible interaction of such a system with more traditional type-theoretical approaches. (Joint work with Lukas Heidemann, Nick Hu and David Reutter.)


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I am happy to announce that we are restarting the "Every proof assistants" series of talks with Anders Mörtberg who will talk about Cubical Agda. Note that we are moving the seminar time to a more reasonable hour, at least as far as the working people in Europe are concerned.

Cubical Agda: A Dependently Typed Programming Language with Univalence and Higher Inductive Types

Time: Thursday, September 17, 2020 from 15:00 to 16:00 (Central European Summer Time, UTC+2)
Location: online at Zoom ID 989 0478 8985
Speaker: Anders Mörtberg (Stockholm University)
Proof assistant: Cubical Agda

Abstract: The dependently typed programming language Agda has recently been extended with a cubical mode which provides extensionality principles for reasoning about equality, such as function and propositional extensionality. These principles are typically added axiomatically to proof assistants based on dependent type theory which disrupts the constructive properties of these systems. Cubical type theory provides a solution by giving computational meaning to Homotopy Type Theory and Univalent Foundations, in particular to the univalence axiom and higher inductive types. In the talk I will discuss how Agda was extended to a full-blown proof assistant with native support for univalence and a general schema of higher inductive types. I will also show a variety of examples of how to use Cubical Agda in practice to reason about mathematics and computer science.

The talk video recording is available.

We have more talks in store, but we will space them out a bit to give slots to our local seminar.

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We shall finish the semester with a "Every proof assistant" talk by William Bowman. Note that we start an hour later than usual, at 17:00 UTC+2.

Cur: Designing a less devious proof assistant

Time: Thursday, June 25, 2020 from 17:00 to 18:00 (Central European Summer Time, UTC+2)
Location: online at Zoom ID 989 0478 8985
Speaker: William J. Bowman (University of British Columbia)
Proof assistant: Cur


Dijkstra said that our tools can have a profound and devious influence on our thinking. I find this especially true of modern proof assistants, with "devious" out-weighing "profound". Cur is an experiment in design that aims to be less devious. The design emphasizes language extension, syntax manipulation, and DSL construction and integration. This enables the user to be in charge of how they think, rather than requiring the user to contort their thinking to that of the proof assistant. In this talk, my goal is to convince you that you want similar capabilities in a proof assistant, and explain and demonstrate Cur's attempt at solving the problem.

The talk video recording and slides with notes and demo code are available.

Upcoming talks: Anders Mörtberg's talk on Cubical Agda will take place in September 2020.

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This week shall witness a performance by Conor McBride.

Epigram 2: Autopsy, Obituary, Apology

Time: Thursday, June 11, 2020 from 16:00 to 17:00 (Central European Summer Time, UTC+2)
Location: online at Zoom ID 989 0478 8985
Speaker: Conor McBride (University of Strathclyde)
Proof assistant: Epigram 2

Abstract: "A good pilot is one with the same number of take-offs and landings." runs the old joke, which makes me a very bad pilot indeed. The Epigram 2 project was repeatedly restarted several times in the late 2000s and never even reached cruising altitude. This talk is absolutely not an attempt to persuade you to start using it. Rather, it is an exploration of the ideas which drove it: proof irrelevant observational equality, first class datatype descriptions, nontrivial equational theories for neutral terms. We may yet live to see such things. Although the programming language elaborator never happened, the underlying proof engine was accessible via an imperative interface called "Cochon": we did manage some interesting constructions, at least one of which I can walk through. I'll also explore the reasons, human and technological, why the thing did not survive the long dark.

The video recording of the talk.

Upcoming talks:

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This week the speaker will be Jon Sterling, and we are getting two proof assistants for the price of one!

redtt and the future of Cartesian cubical type theory

Time: Thursday, June 4, 2020 from 16:00 to 17:00 (Central European Summer Time, UTC+2)
Location: online at Zoom ID 989 0478 8985
Speaker: Jon Sterling (Carnegie Mellon University)
Proof assistant: redtt and cooltt

Abstract: redtt is an interactive proof assistant for Cartesian cubical type theory, a version of Martin-Löf type theory featuring computational versions of function extensionality, higher inductive types, and univalence. Building on ideas from Epigram, Agda, and Idris, redtt introduces a new cubical take on interactive proof development with holes. We will first introduce the basics of cubical type theory and then dive into an interactive demonstration of redtt’s features and its mathematical library.

After this we will catch a first public glimpse of the future of redtt, a new prototype that our team is building currently code-named “cooltt”: cooltt introduces syntax to split on disjunctions of cofibrations in arbitrary positions, implementing the full definitional eta law for disjunction. While cooltt is still in the early stages, it already has full support for univalence and cubical interactive proof development.

The video recording of the talk.

Upcoming talks:

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We are marching on with the Every proof assistant series!

Mechanizing Meta-Theory in Beluga

Time: Thursday, May 28, 2020 from 16:00 to 17:00 (Central European Summer Time, UTC+2)
Location: online at Zoom ID 989 0478 8985
Speaker: Brigitte Pientka (McGill University)
Proof assistant: Beluga

Abstract: Mechanizing formal systems, given via axioms and inference rules, together with proofs about them plays an important role in establishing trust in formal developments. In this talk, I will survey the proof environment Beluga. To specify formal systems and represent derivations within them, Beluga relies on the logical framework LF; to reason about formal systems, Beluga provides a dependently typed functional language for implementing (co)inductive proofs about derivation trees as (co)recursive functions following the Curry-Howard isomorphism. Key to this approach is the ability to model derivation trees that depend on a context of assumptions using a generalization of the logical framework LF, i.e. contextual LF which supports first-class contexts and simultaneous substitutions.

Our experience demonstrated that Beluga enables direct and compact mechanizations of the meta-theory of formal systems, in particular programming languages and logics.

The video recording of the talk.

Upcoming talks:

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I am happy to announce the next seminar in the "Every proof assistant" series.

MMT: A Foundation-Independent Logical System

Time: Thursday, May 21, 2020 from 16:00 to 17:00 (Central European Summer Time, UTC+2)
Location: online at Zoom ID 989 0478 8985
Speaker: Florian Rabe (University of Erlangen)
Proof assistant: The MMT Language and System

Abstract: Logical frameworks are meta-logics for defining other logics. MMT follows this approach but abstracts even further: it avoids committing to any foundational features like function types or propositions. All MMT algorithms are parametric in a set of rules, which are self-contained objects plugged in by the language designer. That results in a framework general enough to develop many formal systems including other logical frameworks in it, enabling the rapidly prototyping of new language features.

Despite this high level of generality, it is possible to develop sophisticated results in MMT. The current release includes, e.g., parsing, type reconstruction, module system, IDE-style editor, and interactive library browser. MMT is systematically designed to be extensible, providing multiple APIs and plugin interfaces, and thus provides a versatile infrastructure for system development and integration.

This talk gives an overview of the current state of MMT and its future challenges. Examples are drawn from the LATIN project, a long-running project of building a modular, highly inter-related suite of formalizations of logics and related formal systems.

The video recording of the talk.

The spring schedule of talks is planned as follows:

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For a while now I have been contemplating a series of seminars titled "Every proof assistant" that would be devoted to all the different proof assistants out there. Apart from the established ones (Isabelle/HOL, Coq, Agda, Lean), there are other interesting experimental proof assistants, and some that are still under development, or just proofs of concept. I would like to know more about them, and I suspect I am not the only one.

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I gave a keynote talk "Derivations as Computations" at ICFP 2019.

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Here are the slides with speaker notes for the talk What is an explicit bijection which I gave at the 31st International Conference on Formal Power Series and Algebraic Combinatorics (FPSAC 2019). It was the "outsider" talk, where they invite someone to tell them something outside of their area.

So how does one sell homotopy type theory to people who are interested in combinatorics? That is a tough sell. I used my MathOverflow question "What is an explicit bijection?" to give a stand-up comedy introduction, after which I plunged into type theory. I am told I plunged a little too hard. For instance, people asked "why are we doing this" because I did not make it clear enough that we are trying to make a distinction between "abstractly exists" and "concretely constructed". Oh well, it's difficult to explain homotopy type theory in 50 minutes. Anyhow, I hope you can get something useful from the slides.

Download slides: what-is-an-explicit-bijection.pdf

Video recording of the lecture is now available.

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I was purging the disk on my laptop of large files and found a video lecture which I forgot to publish. Here it is with some delay. I lectured on how to implement type theory at the School and Workshop on Univalent Mathematics in December 2017, at the University of Birmingham (UK).

You may visit the GitHub repository spartan-type-theory. There used to be a video, but I lost it.

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I have had the honor to lecture at the Oregon Programming Language Summer School 2018 on the topic of algebraic effects and handlers. The notes, materials and the lectures are available online:

I gave four lectures which started with the mathematics of algebraic theories, explained how they can be used to model computational effects, how we make a programming language out of them, and how to program with handlers.

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Spartan type theory

The slides from the talk “Spartan type theory”, given at the School and Workshop on Univalent Mathematics.

Download slides with speaker notes: Spartan Type Theory [PDF]

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I am about to give an invited talk at the  Workshop on Categorical Logic and Univalent Foundations 2016 in Leeds, UK. It's a charming workshop that I am enjoing a great deal. Here are the slides of my talk, with speaker notes, as well as the Andromeda examples that I am planning to cover.

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I am about to give an invited talk at the Computability and Complexity in Analysis 2016 conference (yes, I am in the south of Portugal, surrounded by loud English tourists, but we are working here, in a basement no less). Here are the slides, with extensive speaker notes, comment and questions are welcome.

Slides: hott-reals-cca2016.pdf

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Here are the slides of my TYPES 2015 talk “The troublesome reflection rule” with fairly detailed presenter notes. The meeting is  taking place in Tallinn, Estonia – a very cool country in many senses (it's not quite spring yet even though we're in the second half of May, and it's the country that gave us Skype).

Download slides: The troublesome reflection rule (TYPES 2015) [PDF].

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TEDx “Zeroes”

I spoke at TEDx University of Ljubljana. The topic was how programming influences various aspects of life. I showed the audence how a bit of simple programming can reveal the beauty of mathematics. Taking John Baez's The Bauty of Roots as an inspiration, I drew a very large image (20000 by 17500 pixels) of all roots of all polynomials of degree at most 26 whose coefficients are $-1$ or $1$. That's 268.435.452 polynomials and 6.979.321.752 roots. It is two degrees more than Sam Derbyshire's image,  so consider the race to be on! Who can give me 30 degrees?

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Here are the slides from my Logic Coloquium 2014 talk in Vienna. This is joint work with Kazuto Yoshimura from Japan Advanced Institute for Science and Technology.

Abstract: In constructive mathematics we often consider implications between non-constructive reasoning principles. For instance, it is well known that the Limited principle of omniscience implies that equality of real numbers is decidable. Most such reductions proceed by reducing an instance of the consequent to an instance of the antecedent. We may therefore define a notion of instance reducibility, which turns out to have a very rich structure. Even better, under Kleene's function realizability interpretation instance reducibility corresponds to Weihrauch reducibility, while Kleene's number realizability relates it to truth-table reducibility. We may also ask about a constructive treatment of other reducibilities in computability theory. I shall discuss how one can tackle Turing reducibility constructively via Kleene's number realizability.

Slides with talk notes:  lc2014-slides-notes.pdf

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Brazilian type checking

I just gave a talk at “Semantics of proofs and certified mathematics”. I spoke about a new proof checker Chris Stone and I are working on. The interesting feature is that it has both kinds of equality, the “paths” and the “strict” ones. It is based on a homotopy type system proposed by Vladimir Voevodsky. The slides contain talk notes and explain why it is “Brazilian”.

Download slides: brazilian-type-checking.pdf

GitHub repository:

Abstract: Proof assistants verify that inputs are correct up to judgmental equality. Proofs are easier and smaller if equalities without computational content are verified by an oracle, because proof terms for these equations can be omitted. In order to keep judgmental equality decidable, though, typical proof assistants use a limited definition implemented by a fixed equivalence algorithm. While other equalities can be expressed using propositional identity types and explicit equality proofs and coercions, in some situations these create prohibitive levels of overhead in the proof.
Voevodsky has proposed a type theory with two identity types, one propositional and one judgmental. This lets us hypothesize new judgmental equalities for use during type checking, but generally renders the equational theory undecidable without help from the user.

Rather than reimpose the full overhead of term-level coercions for judgmental equality, we propose algebraic effect handlers as a general mechanism to provide local extensions to the proof assistant's algorithms. As a special case, we retain a simple form of handlers even in the final proof terms, small proof-specific hints that extend the trusted verifier in sound ways.

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HoTT Equivalences

On December 6th 2011 I gave a talk about homotopy equivalences in the context of homotopy type theory at our seminar for foundations of mathematics and theoretical computer science. I discuss the differences and relations between isomorphism (in the sense of type theory), an adjoint equivalence, and a homotopy equivalence. Even though the talk itself was not super-well prepared, I hope the recording will be interesting to some people. I was going fairly slowly, so it should be possible to follow the talk. I apologize for such a long video, but I really did not see how to chop it up into smaller pieces. Also, I need to figure out why I cannot fast forward the video beyond what has been downloaded.

Video recording: HoTT Equivalences

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A talk given at “Mathematics, Algorithms and Proofs 2011” at the Lorentz Center in Leiden, the Netherlands. I explain how to use computational effects to speed up Martin Escardo's impossible functionals.

Video recording: How to make the ‘impossible’ functionals run even faster

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A talk given at “Computation with Infinite Data: Logical and Topological Foundations” Dagstuhl seminar 11411. I describe a realizability model based on infinite-time Turing machines in which it is possible to embed the Baire space (infinite sequences of numbers) into the space of numbers.

Also see the post Constructive gem: an injection from Baire space to natural numbers for written notes on this topic.

Video recording: Embedding the Baire space into natural numbers

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[UPDATE 2012-03-08: since this post was written eff has changed considerably. For updated information, please visit the eff page.]

I just returned from Paris where I was visiting the INRIA ?r² team. It was a great visit, everyone was very hospitable, the food was great, and the weather was nice. I spoke at their seminar where I presented a new programming language eff which is based on the idea that computational effects are algebras. The language has been designed and implemented jointly by Matija Pretnar and myself. Eff is far from being finished, but I think it is ready to be shown to the world. What follows is an extended transcript of the talk I gave in Paris. It is divided into two posts. The present one reviews the basic theory of algebras for a signature and how they are related to computational effects. The impatient readers can skip ahead to the second part, which is about the programming language.

A side remark: I have updated the blog to WordPress to 3.0 and switched to MathJax for displaying mathematics. Now I need to go through 70 old posts and convert the old ASCIIMathML notation to MathJax, as well as fix characters which got garbled during the update. Oh well, it is an investment for the future.

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These are the slides and the extended abstract from my MSFP 2008 talk. Apparently, I forgot to publish them online. There is a discussion on the Agda mailing list to which the talk is somewhat relevant, so I am publishing now.

Abstract: Realizability is an interpretation of intuitionistic logic which subsumes the Curry-Howard interpretation of propositions as types, because it allows the realizers to use computational effects such as non-termination, store and exceptions. Therefore, we can use realizability as a framework for program development and extraction which allows any style of programming, not just the purely functional one that is supported by the Curry-Howard correspondence. In joint work with Christopher A. Stone we developed RZ, a tool which uses realizability to translate specifications written in constructive logic into interface code annotated with logical assertions. RZ does not extract code from proofs, but allows any implementation method, from handwritten code to code extracted from proofs by other tools. In our experience, RZ is useful for specification of non-trivial theories. While the use of computational effects does improve efficiency it also makes it difficult to reason about programs and prove their correctness. We demonstrate this fact by considering non-purely functional realizers for a Brouwerian continuity principle.

Download: msfp2008-slides.pdf, msfp2008-abstract.pdf

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Two versions of this talk were given at Computability and complexity in analysis 2008 and at Mathematics, Algorithms and Proofs 2008.

Joint work with Paul Taylor.

Abstract: Cauchy's construction of reals as sequences of rational approximations is the theoretical basis for a number of implementations of exact real numbers, while Dedekind's construction of reals as cuts has inspired fewer useful computational ideas. Nevertheless, we can see the computational content of Dedekind reals by constructing them within Abstract Stone Duality (ASD), a computationally meaningful calculus for topology. This provides the theoretical background for a novel way of computing with real numbers in the style of logic programming. Real numbers are defined in terms of (lower and upper) Dedekind cuts, while programs are expressed as statements about real numbers in the language of ASD. By adapting Newton's method to interval arithmetic we can make the computations as efficient as those based on Cauchy reals.

Slides: slides-map2008.pdf (obsolete version: slides-cca2008.pdf)
Extended abstract: abstract-cca2098.pdf

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With Iztok Kavkler.

Abstract: The interval domain was proposed by Dana Scott as a domain-theoretic model for real numbers. It is a successful theoretical idea which also inspired a number of computational models for real numbers. However, current state-of-the-art implementations of real numbers, e.g., Mueller's iRRAM and Lambov's RealLib, do not seem to be based on the interval domain. In fact, their authors have observed that domain-theoretic concepts such as monotonicity of functions hinder efficiency of computation.

I will review the data structures and algorithms that are used in modern implementations of exact real arithmetic. They provide important insights, but some questions remain about what theoretical models support them, and how we can show them to be correct. It turns out that the correctness is not always clear, and that the good old interval domain still has a few tricks to offer.

Download slides: domains8-slides.pdf

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A tutorial presented at the Mathematical Foundations of Programming Semantics XXIII Tutorial Day.

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With Davorin Lešnik.

Abstract: We investigate the relationship between constructive theory of metric spaces and synthetic topology. Connections between these are established by requiring a relationship to exist between the intrinsic and the metric topology of a space. We propose a non-classical axiom which has several desirable consequences, e.g., that all maps between separable metric spaces are continuous in the sense of metrics, and that, up to topological equivalence, a set can be equipped with at most one metric which makes it complete and separable.

Presented at: 3rd Workshop on Formal Topology

Download slides: 3wft.pdf

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With Iztok Kavkler.

Abstract: RZ is a tool which translates axiomatizations of mathematical structures to program specifications using the realizability interpretation of logic. This helps programmers correctly implement data structures for computable mathematics. RZ does not prescribe a particular method of implementation, but allows programmers to write efficient code by hand, or to extract trusted code from formal proofs, if they so desire. We used this methodology to axiomatize real numbers and implemented the specification computed by RZ. The axiomatization is the standard domain-theoretic construction of reals as the maximal elements of the interval domain, while the implementation closely follows current state-of-the-art implementations of exact real arithmetic. Our results shows not only that the theory and practice of computable mathematics can coexist, but also that they work together harmoniously.

Presented at Computability and Complexity in Analysis 2007.

Download paper: rzreals.pdf

Download slides: cca2007-slides.pdf

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With Chris Stone.

Realizability theory is not only a fundamental tool in logic and computability, but also has direct application to the design and implementation of programs: it can produce interfaces for the data structure corresponding to a mathematical theory. Our tool, called RZ, serves as a bridge between the worlds of constructive mathematics and programming. By using the realizability interpretation of constructive mathematics, RZ translates specifications in constructive logic into annotated interface code in Objective Caml. The system supports a rich input language allowing descriptions of complex mathematical structures. RZ does not extract code from proofs, but allows any implementation method, from handwritten code to code extracted from proofs by other tools.

Presented at Computablity in Europe 2007.

Download paper:

Download slides: cie2007-slides.pdf

Download source code from RZ web page.

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With Alex Simpson.

Abstract: We present a constructive meta-theorem about sequential continuity which allows us to conclude from a constructive proof of existence of a function between complete metric spaces satisfying a given system of (functional) equations that there also exists a sequentially continuous function satisfying the system.

Presented at: Trends in Constructive mathematics, Frauenwörth am Chimsee, Germany, June 2006.

Download slides: continuity_begets_continuity_bavaria_slides.pdf

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Specifications via Realizability (Dagstuhl)

With Chris Stone.

Presented at: Reliable Implementation of Real Number Algorithms: Theory and Practice, Dagstuhl Seminar 06021.

Abstract: see “Specifications via Realizability (CLASE)”.

Talk notes: rz-dagstuhl.pdf (handwritten notes of the talk with examples of how RZ works)

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At the EST training workshop in Fischbachau, Germany, I gave two lectures on syntehtic computability theory. This version of the talk contains material on recursive analysis which is not found in the MFPS XXI version of a similar talk.

Computability theory, which investigates computable functions and computable sets, lies at the foundation of logic and computer science. Its classical presentations usually involve a fair amount of Goedel encodings. Consequently, there have been a number of presentations of computability theory that aimed to present the subject in an abstract and conceptually pleasing way. We build on two such approaches, Hyland's effective topos and Richman's formulation in Bishop-style constructive mathematics, and develop basic computability theory, starting from a few simple axioms. Because we want a theory that resembles ordinary mathematics as much as possible, we never speak of Turing machines and Goedel encodings, but rather use familiar concepts from set theory and

Download slides: est.pdf

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Lecture notes for my tutorial at Computability and Complexity in Analysis 2005, Kyoto. → continue reading (13 comments)

Abstract: Computability theory, which investigates computable functions and computable sets, lies at the foundation of computer science. Its classical presentations usually involve a fair amount of Gödel encodings which sometime obscure ingenious arguments. Consequently, there have been a number of presentations of computability theory that aimed to present the subject in an abstract and conceptually pleasing way. We build on two such approaches, Hyland's effective topos and Richman's formulation in Bishop-style constructive mathematics, and develop basic computability theory, starting from a few simple axioms. Because we want a theory that resembles ordinary mathematics as much as possible, we never speak of Turing machines and Gödel encodings, but rather use familiar concepts from set theory and topology.

Presented at: Mathematical Foundations of Programming Semantics XXI, Birmingham, 2004 (invited talk).

Download paper: synthetic.pdf,

Download slides: synthetic-slides.pdf

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How to build specifications for abstract data types using realizability → continue reading
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