# Posts in the year 2002

**Abstract:** In this paper I compare two well studied approaches to topological semantics—the domain-theoretic approach, exemplified by the category of countably based equilogical spaces, `omega`Equ, and Type Two Effectivity, exemplified by the category of Baire space representations, Rep(B). These two categories are both locally cartesian closed extensions of countably based `T_0`-spaces. A natural question to ask is how they are related.

First, we show that Rep(B) is equivalent to a full coreflective subcategory of `omega`Equ, consisting of the so-called `0`-equilogical spaces. This establishes a pair of adjoint functors between Rep(B) and `omega`Equ. The inclusion of Rep(B) in `omega`Equ and its coreflection have many desirable properties, but they do not preserve exponentials in general. This means that the cartesian closed structures of Rep(B) and `omega`Equ are essentially different. However, in a second comparison we show that Rep(B) and `omega`Equ do share a common cartesian closed subcategory that contains all countably based `T_0`-spaces. Therefore, the domain-theoretic approach and TTE yield equivalent topological semantics of computation for all higher-order types over countably based `T_0`-spaces. We consider several examples involving the natural numbers and the real numbers to demonstrate how these comparisons make it possible to transfer results from one setting to another.

**Published in:** Mathematical logic quarterly, 2002, vol. 48, suppl. 1, 1-15.

**Download:** equtte.pdf, equtte.ps.gz

### Equilogical Spaces

- 05 July 2002
- Publications

With Lars Birkedal and Dana Scott.

**Abstract:** It is well known that one can build models of full higher-order dependent type theory (also called the calculus of constructions) using partial equivalence relations (PERs) and assemblies over a partial combinatory algebra (PCA). But the idea of categories of PERs and ERs (total equivalence relations) can be applied to other structures as well. In particular, we can easily define the category of ERs and equivalence-preserving continuous mappings over the standard category Top of topological `T_0`-spaces; we call these spaces (a topological space together with an ER) *equilogical spaces* and the resulting category Equ. We show that this category—in contradistinction to Top—is a cartesian closed category. The direct proof outlined here uses the equivalence of the category Equ to the category PEqu of PERs over algebraic lattices (a full subcategory of Top that is well known to be cartesian closed from domain theory). In another paper with Carboni and Rosolini (cited herein) a more abstract categorical generalization shows why many such categories are cartesian closed. The category Equ obviously contains Top as a full subcategory, and it naturally contains many other well known subcategories. In particular, we show why, as a consequence of work of Ershov, Berger, and others, the Kleene-Kreisel hierarchy of countable functionals of finite types can be naturally constructed in Equ from the natural numbers object `N` by repeated use in Equ of exponentiation and binary products. We also develop for Equ notions of modest sets (a category equivalent to Equ) and assemblies to explain why a model of dependent type theory is obtained. We make some comparisons of this model to other, known models.

**Published in:** Theoretical Computer Science, 315(1):35-59, 2004.

With Alex Simpson and Martín Escardó.

**Abstract:** We compare the definability of total functionals over the reals in two functional-programming approaches to exact real-number computation: the *extensional* approach, in which one has an abstract datatype of real numbers; and the *intensional* approach, in which one encodes real numbers using ordinary datatypes. We show that the type hierarchies coincide for second-order types, and we relate this fact to an analogous comparison of type hierarchies over the *external* and *internal* real numbers in Dana Scott's category of equilogical spaces. We do not know whether similar coincidences hold at third-order types. However, we relate this question to a purely topological conjecture about the Kleene-Kreisel continuous functionals over the natural numbers. Finally, we demonstrate that, in the intensional approach to exact real-number computation, parallel primitives are not required for programming second-order total functionals over the reals.

**Published in:** In Proceedings ICALP 2002, Springer LNCS 2380, pp. 488-500, 2002.

**Download:** paradigms.pdf, paradigms.ps.gz, paradigms_proofs.ps.gz (long version, with proofs)